Ukraine is an independent state in eastern Europe that shares a border with Russia to its east.
Obsidian - the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
Birthstones are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
Troglobites are creatures that have adapted to a permanent life in the darkness of a cave.
What is LNG? Liquefied Natural Gas. The gas is condensed into a liquid for efficient transport.
Minerals - Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
Rocks - Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Rock Art - People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Tourmaline - an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
What is a Maar? The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
Mineral Rights - Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Names Used for Great Britain, British Isles, United Kingdom, and Ireland. What they mean.
Wall Maps - Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
Tallest Mountain - Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
Geodes look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
Ethiopian Opal - The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
Petrified Wood is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Curling Stones are made from a special type of granite, found at just a few locations worldwide.
Free Google Earth software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
Hardness Picks - Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
Plate Tectonics - Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
100+ Gems - Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Rock & Mineral Kits The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Zircon is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
Fluorescent Minerals and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
How did the Hawaiian Islands Form? The power of a moving plate over a stationary hot spot.
What Is Earth Science? The study of Earth and its neighbors in space. Learn more!
Types of Volcanic Eruptions - A description of the most common eruption types.
Turquoise - A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
What is a Geyser? Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Quartzite is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Types of Maps - Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Gem Silica is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
World*s Largest Diamonds Records for the largest rough, faceted and carbonado diamond.
Emerald is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Chalk is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Granite - The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
Geology Books - A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
Pictures of Opal - A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Grape Agate is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
Herkimer Diamonds Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
The East Africa Rift System - The extensive fault system that is tearing Africa apart.
Diamonds - Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
Shale - The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
Olivine - Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
Mount Vesuvius - geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Cave of the Hands is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
Cinder Cones are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
The Rock Used to Make Beer - Geologists are beer experts and should know about this rock.
Waterproof Paper - Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Largest Volcano - That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
Fool*s Gold is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Topo Maps - The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Coal Through a Microscope - Coal is more than a black rock. It is THE most interesting rock.
Rhyolite An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
Volcanoes - Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Portable UV Lamp - Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
Mined in America - Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
Sliding Rocks Mystery - What causes these rocks to slide across a playa in Death Valley?
Rock Salt is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
What Is The Moho? The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
Crater of Diamonds - The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Tallest Tsunami - A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Map of the Oceans - showing the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Southern Oceans.
Ant Hill Garnets - tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Chalcopyrite - The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
What is the San Andreas Fault? Map, photos and description of the fault.
Rhodochrosite - a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
Labradorite is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
The Unsung Mineral Hero - and the commodity upon which almost everything is built.
Know the Rules before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
Ilmenite - The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Lapis Lazuli - a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
The Doorway to Hell is a flaming sinkhole seeping natural gas that has been burning for decades.
Bear Attacks - Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
Hawaii*s Next Island could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
Field Courses - Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
Corundum is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Lightning Strikes Map by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
Sand is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Ruby and Sapphire are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
What is Geology? The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
Meteorites - Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
Citrine is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
Copper is a metal used in coins, electronics, pipes, wiring, motors, alloys and many other products.
Expansive Soil causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Tanzanite was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
Mohs Hardness Scale is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Debris Flows are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
The Many Uses of Gold - Unique properties make gold one of the most useful metals.
Range of Bear Species - Where you might encounter different types of bears.
Diamond Misconception - Many people think that diamonds form from coal. Not True!
Fire Opal is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
JORDAN - 405 - 406 - MNH - IMPERF - 1963 - 15TH ANN DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS - Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
Rock Tumblers - All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Mineraloids are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
World Record Lightning - this lake has more lightning than any other place in the world.
Deepest Point in the Ocean The deepest point in the ocean is in the Mariana Trench.
Utica Shale is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
Helium is a byproduct of the natural gas industry. Its most important use is in MRI.
US Diamond Mines - Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
The Uses of Marble are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Hand Lens A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
Geology Tools - Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
Morganite is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
The Science of Fireworks Learn how the colors and shapes are created.
Crystal Habit is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
Angel Falls in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
Where Are the Canary Islands? Off the northwest coast of Africa, 60 miles west of Morocco.
Andalusite is a metamorphic mineral and a strongly pleochroic gem material.
Homeowners Insurance might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
Mars Meteorites Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Solar System Volcanoes - Earth is not the only location of volcanic activity.
Azurite - Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
Talc is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Largest Earthquake ever recorded - Magnitude 9.5. Chile, 1960.
Gold Pans and Panning Kits - classifiers, snuffer bottles. Learn how to pan for Gold.
The Acid Test - Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
Colored Diamonds are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
Storm Surge can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Mount Etna - The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
What Is Luster? Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
Blue Flames and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
Rare Earths - Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Soapstone is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Teacher Resources - K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Ticks are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
How Are Hurricanes Named? There is a plan for naming tropical storms.
The Green River Formation is one of the most famous rock units in the world for its fossils.
Cinnabar - the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
Coquina - A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Volcanic Explosivity - Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
Extraterrestrial Gems - A number of materials from space are used as attractive gems.
Gifts That Rock - What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
Largest Hurricanes Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
10 Gemmy Facts About Spinel - Is spinel the world*s most overlooked gem?
Hematite - The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
California Earthquake Maps - A collection of isoseismal maps for earthquakes in California.
Novarupta - The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
Peridotite is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
Charoite is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
Rocks on Mars Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
Spatter Cones are small, steep, volcanic cones built of welded basaltic lava.